Chrome web browser users on Android have some extra protection now from malware and other security issues. Version 46 of Chrome now has the Safe Browsing feature that's been included in PC versions for some time. Safe Browsing has also been enabled as the default setting for Chrome on Android.
Google says they have taken steps so that Safe Browsing for Chrome on Android can be used effectively with as little mobile data or battery use as possible:
Bytes are big: our mantra is that every single bit that Safe Browsing sends a mobile device must improve protection. Network bandwidth and battery are the scarcest resources on a mobile device, so we had to carefully rethink how to best protect mobile users. Some social engineering attacks only happen in certain parts of the world, so we only send information that protects devices in the geographic regions they're in.
We also make sure that we send information about the riskiest sites first: if we can only get a very short update through, as is often the case on lower-speed networks in emerging economies, the update really has to count. We also worked with Google's compression team to make the little data that we do send as small as possible.
If you want to double check your settings, head into Chrome, then Settings and Privacy. From here you'll be able to toggle Safe Browsing on and off.