It looks like Chrome OS for Chromebooks and Chromeboxes may be joining Android in getting Google's modern Roboto font soon. If accurate, Roboto would replace the Noto Sans UI font in Chrome OS.
While still unconfirmed, a request to add the Roboto font to Chrome OS was made by a Google design team member on the Chromium issue tracker.
If this does happen, we still don't know when Roboto would arrive, though it's speculated that the font may launch with Chrome OS version 41, which is still two versions away from the current Chrome version 39 that we're on today.
Keep in mind that this is for Chrome OS, not the Chrome browser for your desktop, the latter of which is dependent upon your operating system for font display.
If you're curious about Roboto, be sure to give a read of Matias Duarte's insights of the font.
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