Chipset maker Qualcomm has been at the leading edge of fast battery charging standards with its "Quick Charge" technology, which is now up to version 3.0 as of 2015. Just like the original launch and version 2.0, Quick Charge 3.0 lets your phone or tablet intelligently charge up your battery it a very quick rate early-on in the charging cycle, then slow down over time until it reaches a full charge.
The end result is tech that lets you fill up the first — and most important — portion of your battery to keep you going, while making sure the battery doesn't overheat or take in too much stress during charging.
In order for the technology to work, you need to have both a device and a charger that support the Quick Charge 3.0 standard, because it requires intelligence on both ends to know the state of the battery and charger for proper power output. Thankfully, the technology is backwards-compatible, so if you have a Quick Charge 2.0 device or charger, it can work just fine at its highest possible rate even if you're linking it up with a Quick Charge 3.0 device or charger.
You're likely to find Quick Charge 3.0 (and earlier versions) in devices that have Qualcomm's own processors (Snapdragon 430 and above, mostly), but several manufacturers have also licensed the technology and released it in their phones under different names, such as Samsung's "Fast Charging" or ASUS' "BoostMaster." As far as chargers and batteries go, it's easy to find ones that are certified to work with the standards.